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Fasting

Roza - Fasting

FASTING

As per Imam Gazali Alaihi Rehma in his book Kimiya e Sa’adaat, When Ramadan arrives let it be known that fasting is obligatory from dawn to sunset in which one is forbidden to Eat, Drink or have sexual intercourse.

DESCRIPTION OF FASTING AND AGE FOR BEGINNING

According to Shariat, the definition of a fast is make the intention to fast for the sake of Allah from the break of dawn to sunset and to refrain from eating, drinking or having sexual intercourse. For fasting, a woman has to be clean from menstruation or bleeding after child birth meaning, the fast will not count for a woman on her period or still bleeding after child birth. It is obligatory for a woman on her period or bleeding after childbirth to fast after her state of bleeding is over and she is clean from it, meaning to make Qaza for the missed Roza.

ACTIONS THAT BREAK THE FAST
  1. By eating, drinking or having intercourse breaks the fast when you are aware that you are fasting and if you forget that you were fasting and eat or drank or had intercourse, then the fast will not break [ Alamgiri].
  2. The fast will break if you smoked a cigarette or other form of smoke inhalation or cigar etc.
  3. The fast also breaks by eating a paan or tobacco, even if you spit out the contents.
  4. If you put sugar, sweet, chewing gum or any item in your mouth which dissolves and you swallow the taste then the fast will break.
  5. If there was something stuck in your teeth the same size or larger than a chickpea and you swallowed it or it was smaller than a chick pea and you took it out of your mouth and then swallowed it again then the fast will break. If your gums bled and the blood was more or equal to your saliva and went down your throat or was less than the saliva and it went down your throat and you could taste it then the fast will break. If the blood was less than the saliva and you couldn't feel the taste and it went down your throat, then the Roza will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar-e-Shariat ].
  6. If you were cleaning your mouth out or was cleaning your nostrils and water went down your throat by mistake or went up too far in your nostrils that it went in your mouth canal even by mistake then the fast will break, if however, you forgot that you were fasting then the fast will not break [Alamgiri, Bahar-e-Shariat ].
  7. If you drank water or eat something whilst you were sleeping or your mouth was open and water went down your throat or snow went down your throat then the fast will break [Johra, Alamgiri, Bahar-e-Shariat ].
  8. To swallow someone else's saliva or to take your own saliva in your hand and then swallowing it will break the fast [Alamgiri, Bahar-e-Shariat ]. If you put a colored thread in your mouth and your saliva became colored and then you swallowed the saliva, then the fast will break [Alamgiri, Bahar-e-Shariat ].
  9. If tears went into the mouth and it was only a drop or two then the fast will not break and if it is more and the taste is felt in the whole mouth then the fast will break, the same rule applies to sweat [Alamgiri, Bahar-e-Shariat ].
  10. If a man kissed a woman or touched her or hugged her or copulated with her or embraced her and then ejaculated the fast would break and if the woman touched a man and the man ejaculated then the fast would not break. If a man touches a woman on her clothing and her clothing is so thick that the body warmth cannot be felt then the fast will not break even if he ejaculates.
  11. If the private parts are cleaned with excessive force up to the extent that the water reached up to the place where the suppository is kept then the fast will break and one should refrain from using too much force as there is a chance of illness[Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar-e-Shariat ]. If a man put oil or water down the hole of his penis then the fast will not break even if the liquid reaches the bottom. If a woman put water or oil into her vagina then her fast will break [Alamgiri, Bahar-e-Shariat ].
  12. If a woman put cotton or a cloth in her vagina and it does not stay completely on the outside then the fast will break. If someone puts a dry finger up the anus or a woman put a dry finger inside her vagina then the fast will not break and if the finger is wet or something is on it then the fast will break when the finger reaches the part where the point of the suppository goes [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar-e-Shariat ].
  13. If a mouthful vomit is done purposely and you are aware that you are fasting then the fast will break and if small amounts are vomited then the fast will not break[Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.].
  14. If vomit occurs on its own without control then whether, it be a small amount or large the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  15. The rule of vomit applies when the vomit consists of food or liquid or blood, if the vomit consists of just phlegm then the fast will not break regardless of situation[Alamgiri].
  16. If in Ramadan a person without cause openly eats or drinks then the rule for an Islamic judge is to execute them [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar-e-Shariat ].
ACTIONS THAT BREAK THE FAST BUT ONLY QAZA IS NECESSARY
  1. If you were under the impression that the break of dawn had not yet occurred and therefore you eat, drank or had sexual intercourse and then later on found out that the break of dawn had already happened, then the fast will not count and only Qaza is necessary [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  2. If you were forced into eating or drinking and someone threatened you (either to kill you or cause you serious harm) if you did not break your fast then even if you eat with your own hands, only Qaza is necessary [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.]. Meaning only one fast has to be performed to replace the one broken [Bahar-e-Shariat].
  3. If you had eaten or drank or had intercourse by mistake or you ejaculated just by seeing something or had a wet dream and then you thought that the fast had broken and therefore you deliberately eat or drank etc. then it is only compulsory to perform Qaza [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar-e-Shariat ].
  4. If you put ear drops in your ear or there was a wound on your stomach or head and you put medication on it and it reached the stomach or brain or you took on a drip (of glucose) or you sucked up medicine up your nose or you eat a stone, soil, cotton, paper, grass or any item where people would not generally eat and would think awful of, or stayed in Ramadan as if in Roza but did not make an intention of fasting, or did not make an intention in the morning but made an intention before midday and then eat after midday, or made an intention of fasting but not for Ramadan or raindrops or snow went down the throat or drank many drops of tears or sweat or had intercourse with a very small child who was not capable of having intercourse, or had intercourse with a dead person or had intercourse with an animal or had intercourse on a thigh or stomach or kissed a woman on her lips or touched a woman and even if there was a piece of cloth in between but the warmth of the body is felt and in these situations you ejaculated or you masturbated or you ejaculated whilst performing foreplay or except for the fast of Ramadan you broke another fast whether it be the Qaza of Ramadan, or a woman was sleeping whilst she was fasting and someone had intercourse with her whilst in her sleep or a woman was in her sense in the morning and she made the intention of fasting and then she went insane and whilst in this situation sexual intercourse was committed with her, or you were under the impression that it is night and you had food or you were in doubt that it was night but you had food but in fact the morning had broken, or you thought that the sun had set and you ate but the sun had not set or two people gave witness that the sun had set and two people gave witness that it was still day and this situation you eat food then in ALL the above situations only Qaza is necessary not Kaffara [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar-e-Shariat , etc.]
  5. A traveler settled at a place, a woman on her period or bleeding after child birth became clean from it or an insane person came back to their senses, or an ill person became healthy whose fast was broken whether someone made the person break their fast or water or other liquid went down the throat by mistake and the fast was broken because of this or you thought that it was night and had some food but in fact morning had broken or you thought that it was sunset but in fact day time was still left then in all these situations where there is still daytime left then you must stay as if you were in fasting as this is Wajib and then perform Qaza for the fast and if a child became an adult or an infidel became a Muslim then the Qaza for this day is not necessary but to remain as if they were fasting for the rest of the day is also necessary for them [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  6. When a child reaches the age of ten and they have the strength to keep a fast then they should be forced to keep a fast and if necessary they should be hit and if the strength is seen and then they break the fast then they are not to be given the order of Qaza, however, if the Namaz is broken then they should be made to repeat it [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar-e-Shariat ]. If someone was having intercourse before dawn and as soon as dawn occurred they separated then there is no harm but if they continued then Qaza is necessary not Kaffara [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  7. If you were having intercourse by mistake and you separated as soon as you remembered then there is no harm and if you continued then Qaza is necessary not Kaffara [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
  8. A deceased person had some Qaza that he had to perform then the Wali (next of kin) should give Fidya (money to replace the fast) to the poor but this is only necessary when the deceased had made a will and left some property behind and if this is not the case then it is not necessary for the Wali to give Fidya, however, it is better if they do so [Bahar-e-Shariat].
ACTIONS THAT BREAK THE FAST AND KAFFARA IS ALSO NECESSARY

If the fast of Ramadan is purposely broken then Kaffara is necessary. The Kaffara (compensation) is either to free one slave and if this is not possible then keep sixty fasts consecutively without a gap and if this is also not possible then feed fully sixty beggars twice in a day. If the sixty fasts are kept and in the middle even if one day's fast is missed then you must start the sixty again the previous ones will not count. If someone had kept fifty nine fasts and was unable to keep the sixtieth due to illness etc. then they must start again the previous fifty nine are wasted. However, if a woman starts her period in between then she must miss them and continue the fasts once she becomes clean and the previous fasts before the period started will count and when completing sixty the Kaffara will be completed [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar-e-Shariat , Alamgiri]. When breaking the fast and for Kaffara to become necessary there are a few conditions that have to be fulfilled and only then the Kaffara become necessary.

ACTS THAT DO NOT BREAK THE FAST
  1. If you eat, drink or have sexual intercourse by mistake then the fast does not break.
  2. If a fly, smoke or dust goes down the throat then the fast does not break, however, if you purposely inhaled smoke then the fast will break if you know that you are fasting. For example, incense, loban was lighted and was brought near the mouth and the smoke was sucked up the nose, then the fast will break.
  3. If you apply oil or lotion or surma on the body or eyes then the fast will not break and if the taste of the oil or surma is felt in the throat or if the saliva is colored due to the surma then the fast will still not break [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar-e-Shariat ].
  4. If a fly goes down the throat then the fast will not break and if it is deliberately swallowed then the fast will break [Alamgiri, Bahar-e-Shariat ]. If whilst talking the lips got wet or you cleared your throat and then drank the saliva, then the fast will not break but you should refrain from doing this [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar-e-Shariat ].
  5. If your gums bleed and the blood reached the throat but did not go down it, then the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  6. If you were eating by mistake and as soon as you remembered you spat out the food then the fast will not break and if you swallowed the food then the fast will break [Alamgiri].
  7. You started eating (sehri) before the break of dawn and whilst you were eating you saw that the morning had broken and you spat out the food in your mouth then the fast will not break and if you swallowed the food then the fast will break [Alamgiri].
  8. If you chewed a linseed or something of equivalent size and it went down the throat with your saliva then the fast will not break, if however, you felt the taste of it then the fast will break.
  9. If medicine is grounded or flour is sieved and you felt the taste in your throat then the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  10. If water went inside the ears then the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar]
  11. If you talked badly about someone behind their back then the fast will not break, however to backbite is a very large sin. It is stated in the Holy Quran that to backbite is the same as eating the flesh of one's dead brother, it is quoted in the Hadith Sharif that backbiting is worse than adultery and by backbiting the light(Noor) of fasting will disappear [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  12. If you kissed but did not ejaculate then the fast does not break, and in the same way you looked at a woman or her private parts but did not touch her and ejaculated or reached orgasm even though you looked many times or you thought about intercourse for a long time or kept on thinking about sexual activities and then ejaculated, then in all these situations the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
  13. 'If you had a wet dream (nocturnal emission) then the fast will not break.
  14. If you remained in a state where bathing is obligatory (Junub) until the morning, in fact remained like that all day then the fast will not break, however to remain like that so that you miss a Namaz is Haram and it is quoted in the Hadith Sharif that where there is a Junub person in a house the angels of mercy do not enter the house [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar-e-Shariat ]. If you had intercourse in any other hole except for the two passages below then unless you ejaculate the fast will not break. Also, if you masturbated but did not ejaculate then the fast does not break although this act is strictly Haram and it is stated in the Hadith that those who do this are not with me (Holy Prophet) [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar-e-Shariat ].